“Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!” (Romans 11:12, ESV)
Often, we have a bad day. In those bad days, we dream of better days ahead. This dreaming is a good thing. I think it helps us keep our sanity. However, while we do normally get out of the mess we are in and experience better days, most often they do not match our daydreams.
Paul here presents better days for Israel. However, what Paul presents are not daydreams like ours. Paul presents the reality of God’s glorious purposes, the things that will come to pass. There is a better day coming and this is what Paul speaks of here.
Since Israel as a nation rejected their Messiah, Jesus, God’s blessing was made available to the whole world, meaning the Gentiles. Yet, there would be something even greater than this to come. Paul looks to a day when Israel will come to national faith. When this happens, it will mean an even greater blessing for the whole world.
I believe Paul is speaking of a time at the end of the Great Tribulation. At that time, Christ will return and all the Jews who have survived the tribulation, the Nation of Israel, will then recognize Jesus as their Messiah and worship Him as such. At that time, Jesus will establish a Millennial Kingdom on earth that will be characterized by blessing, righteousness, peace and prosperity for all.
Right now, the Lord is preserving a righteous remnant of Israel and will continue to do so forever. Yes, during the tribulation, Israel will be judged. Yet their will be a believing and surviving remnant of Israel. In the millennium, these along with all those of genuine faith throughout history will worship Jesus as their Messiah and enjoy the blessings of His earthly reign as King of Kings and Lord of Lords. An even greater day is coming.